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The Pareto front allows identifying the most efficient design for a given cost or the cheapest design for a given efficiency and is an important tool to find the best overall design of storage systems for a specific application. The heat contained in the compressed air is stored, and the cooled air is stored in a hermetically sealed reservoir. The optimization of an industrial-scale storage allowed identifying a design with an exergy efficiency that was only 4. The research will look at the selection of appropriate phase-change and encapsulation materials as well as their cycling stability. Stabilization of the outflow temperature of a packed-bed thermal energy storage by combining rocks with phase change materials.

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Applied Energyvol.

Swiss Chemical Society, The higher efficiency is attributed to the axial temperature distribution in the packed bed and the associated conduction heat kyi across the insulated walls. Constrained multi-objective optimization of thermocline packed-bed thermal-energy storage.

To generate electricity during periods of high demand, the air is released from the reservoir, absorbs heat from the storage, and is expanded through a turbine that drives a generator.

The close collaboration with industrial partners Airlight Energy Ltd. Therefore, the total capacity of PHS is scheduled to be expanded significantly as part of the Energy Strategy Electricity during times of low demand is used to drive a compressor. The first concept is based on sensible heat storage using a packed bed of rocks. Philipp Roos Project Head: The optimization of an industrial-scale storage allowed identifying a design with an exergy efficiency that was only 4.

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The Pareto front allows identifying the most efficient design for a given cost or the cheapest design for a given efficiency and is an important tool to find the best overall design of storage systems for a specific application. The heat contained in the compressed air is stored, and the cooled air is stored in a hermetically sealed reservoir. AA-CAES plants achieve high efficiencies because the heat generated during compression is stored and then reused during expansion, see the Figure below.

Homepage Navigation Content Sitemap Search. It kfi play an even more important role in the future due to the fluctuating nature of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power.

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Solar Energyvol. The two concepts will be evaluated in terms of the efficiency and the material costs relative to storage capacity. The research will look at the selection of appropriate phase-change and encapsulation materials as well as their cycling stability.

Applied Thermal Engineeringvol. Since this suffers from a drop of the outflow temperature during the discharge cycle with an attendant negative impact on the overall cycle efficiency, we will also investigate a second concept in which a limited amount of encapsulated phase-change materials is added to the packed bed.

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The competing objectives of maximizing the exergy efficiency and minimizing the material costs were treated by a Pareto front. Constraints were imposed to obtain storage systems with specified capacities and limits on the air outflow temperatures during charging and discharging.

Initial investigations have confirmed the promise of this novel approach. The results showed that a storage shaped as a truncated cone with the smallest cross-section at the top has a higher exergy efficiency than storages shaped as cylinders or truncated cones with the largest cross-section at the top.

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Stabilization of the outflow temperature of a packed-bed thermal energy storage by combining rocks with phase change materials. However, the construction of additional Ktk plants is very costly and opposed by environmental groups.

A constrained multi-objective optimization approach is applied to optimize the exergy efficiency and material costs of thermocline packed-bed thermal-energy storage systems using air as the heat-transfer fluid.